Reference list or Bibliography

The reference list should include details for everything that you cite in your assignment. It should be in alphabetical order by author with all the different types of material in one sequence
You will be asked you to produce a Bibliography. This is a list of relevant items that you have used to help you prepare for the assignment but which are not necessarily cited in your text e.g. general background reading to familiarise yourself with the topic.A reference listis always required when you cite other people’s work within your assignment.The terms reference list and bibliography are sometimes used interchangeably. Make sure that you know what is required from you before you complete your assignment.

Examples of how Bibliographies should be structured.


Author’s surname, author’s first name or initials
Publication date – in brackets
Title – Bold.
Publisher : Place of publication.

Author – one
Denning, A. (1994) The craft of woodcarving. Sandstone : London.    Authors – multiple
Yarwood, P., White, P. & West, L. (1997) Design and communication. Hodder : New York.

Edited work
Smith, T. ed. (1989) Cooking. 2nd ed. Helm : Melbourne.

No author
Artists in the news (1996) Prion : New York.



Please note that material available on the Internet varies greatly in its quality and accuracy, therefore students should always carefully evaluate the material.
Author (if available)
Publication date – in brackets
‘Title of article’
Title of site – Bold
Available: full URL
[Access date].

Fox, T. (1998) ‘How to grow roses’ [Online]. Gardenbed.
Available:  [Accessed 12 August 1998].     No author and no date
‘Gun laws : the gun debate’ [n.d. Online]. Gun Control.
Available:  [Accessed 23 August 1999].



If you use a direct quote or paraphrase (indirect quote) the words of an author you must acknowledge that you are using someone else’s ideas.

Follow these steps when using a direct quote or paraphrasing:

Name the author you are quoting or paraphrasing
Date of publication
Page number if appropriate

Direct Quotes are written exactly as they appear in the work, in inverted commas:
“It is well known that schizophrenia is inherited. Children of schizophrenic parents are more likely to develop this psychosis than are children of nonschizophrenic parents.” (Yussen, 1988: 90)

Short quotes (less than 3 lines) should be incorporated into your sentence.
Long quotes (more than 3 line) should be indented.

Indirect Quotes do not require “inverted commas” because you are not quoting directly; you are summarising or paraphrasing the ideas into your own words:

According to Yussen (1988: 90)  children of schizophrenic parents are more likely to inherit schizophrenia than children of nonshizophrenic parents.

If this is the first time you have mentioned the author you should use their full name, i.e. Simone de Beauvoir. And should read like this:

In Simone de Beauvoir’s famous book the Second Sex (1949) she states that, ‘It is frequently described in vague and dazzling terms that seem to have been borrowed from the vocabulary of the seers, and indeed in the times of St Thomas it was considered an essence as certainly defined as the somniferous virtue of the poppy. (de Beauvoir 1949: 5)


Harvard System of Referencing Guides

A very comprehensive guide on how to reference material from a variety of sources can be found at:

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